The Bernadine Order settled in Lublin in the mid-15th c. and began the construction of a wooden church and a monastery in 1460. From the 1470s to the turn of the 16th c. first a brick church and later a convent were erected. After the fire in 1602, the temple was rebuilt and transformed into a three-nave basilica with six adjoining chapels in the Lublin Renaissance style and became an exemplar for other buildings erected in the Lublin Region. The vault of the church is decorated with intricate stuccos and the eastern side of the church features a characteristic gable covered with strapwork.

The church has a particularly interesting interior décor, partially due to generosity and favour of Lublin residents who founded many of its furnishings and decorations. The Baroque side altars were artistically carved by Fryderyk Kargier and Sebastian Zeisel (sculptors connected with the Czartoryski Family in Puławy). The main altar features a miraculous painting of St. Anthony, while one of the side altars enshrines the holy relics of St. Valentine. Inside there are many Renaissance tombstones and epitaph plaques e.g of Wojciech Oczko – the court medical doctor of the last Jagiellon kings and Stephen Bathory.