The Capuchin Order arrived in Lublin in 1721. Built in the years 1726-33, the church and the monastery complex were founded by Paweł Sanguszko, buried in the church crypt, and his wife Anna Lubomirska.

The exterior and interior of the church were meant to reflect the strict Capuchin monastic rule. The façade is modest, decorated only with pilasters and statues of St. Peter and St. Paul. The roof and the original interior décor destroyed in 1768 in the fire were thoroughly reconstructed. The neo-Gothic Chapel of the Immaculate Heart of Mary was added to the eastern side of the building in 1857. Inside there is a white marble statue of Our Lady by W. Oleszczyński. The interior of the church is modest and devoid of superfluous gilded decorations and paintings, with unpolychromed oak altars. When the Capuchin Order was relocated to Łomża in 1864, the church was given to diocesan priests and the monastery converted into a storehouse. In 1919 the buildings were reclaimed by the Capuchins.